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Roof Decking

May 9, 2023

Roof Decking: Everything You Need to Know

Roof decking is one of the most important components of a roofing system. It is the layer or layers of materials that are installed on top of the roof structure to support and protect the roof covering. Proper roof decking ensures that a building is safe, stable, and weather-resistant. In this article, we will explore everything you need to know about roof decking, including its purpose, types of materials used, installation process, maintenance, and more.

Purpose of Roof Decking

The primary purpose of roof decking is to provide a solid and durable foundation for the roof covering. The decking is installed on top of the roof structure, which typically consists of roof trusses, joists or rafters. It serves as the base for the roof covering, which may be made of shingles, tiles, metal panels, or other materials.

Roof decking also helps to distribute the weight of the roof covering evenly across the roof structure. This reduces stress and strain on the roof framing, which can prevent serious structural damage. Additionally, roof decking acts as a barrier against moisture, which can penetrate the roof covering and cause rot, mildew, or other damage.

Types of Materials Used for Roof Decking

There are several types of materials used for roof decking, each with its own unique advantages and disadvantages. Some common materials include:

1. Plywood Decking

Plywood is a popular choice for roof decking because it is strong, lightweight, and easy to work with. It comes in a range of thicknesses and grades, and can be treated to resist moisture and mold.

2. OSB Decking

Oriented strand board (OSB) is another common type of roof decking. It is made from engineered wood strands that are bonded together with adhesive resins and wax. OSB is durable and affordable, but it is susceptible to moisture damage and can swell or warp over time.

3. Roof Decking Panels

Roof decking panels are prefabricated panels made from wood, steel, or composite materials. They come in various sizes and thicknesses, and are designed to be easy to install and handle. Roof decking panels are a good choice for large commercial or industrial roofs, where speed and efficiency are critical.

4. Concrete Decking

Concrete is a popular choice for roof decking in areas with high winds, seismic activity, or fire risk. It is heavy and durable, and provides excellent fire resistance. However, concrete decking is expensive and requires expert installation.

5. Metal Decking

Metal decking is typically used in steel or metal building construction. It is lightweight, strong, and durable, and can be coated with a variety of finishes to resist corrosion and weathering.

Installation Process for Roof Decking

The installation process for roof decking will vary depending on the type of material used, the roof structure, and the building design. However, there are some basic steps that are common to most installations:

1. Measure and Cut

The first step is to measure and cut the roof decking materials to the right size. This requires careful planning and precise measurements, as any errors can result in an unstable or uneven roof surface.

2. Prepare the Surface

The roof structure must be prepared by removing any old roof covering, repairing damaged or rotted framing, and ensuring that the surface is clean and free from debris.

3. Install the Decking

The roof decking is then installed on top of the prepared surface, using nails, screws, or adhesives. The materials must be spaced correctly to allow for expansion and contraction, and any gaps or seams must be sealed to prevent leaks.

4. Inspect and Test

After the decking is installed, it must be inspected and tested to ensure that it is level, stable, and secure. This includes checking for any signs of damage, movement, or deterioration.

Maintenance of Roof Decking

Proper maintenance of roof decking is critical for ensuring the long-term performance and safety of a roofing system. Here are some basic maintenance tips for different types of decking materials:

1. Plywood and OSB Decking

Plywood and OSB decking should be inspected regularly for signs of moisture damage, warping, or splitting. Any damaged or deteriorated sections should be replaced promptly to prevent further damage. The decking should also be properly ventilated to prevent moisture buildup.

2. Roof Decking Panels

Roof decking panels should be inspected for corrosion or damage. Any loose or damaged panels should be replaced immediately, as they can compromise the structural integrity of the roof.

3. Concrete Decking

Concrete decking should be inspected for cracks, chips, or shifting. Any damage should be repaired promptly to prevent water infiltration, which can lead to serious structural damage.

4. Metal Decking

Metal decking should be inspected for corrosion, cracks, or damage. Any damaged or corroded sections should be replaced, and the decking should be properly insulated to prevent condensation.


Roof decking is a critical component of a roofing system, and it plays a vital role in protecting a building from the elements. Whether you are installing a new roof or repairing an existing one, it is important to choose the right materials, follow the proper installation procedures, and maintain the decking regularly to ensure its longevity. By following these guidelines, you can ensure that your roofing system remains safe, stable, and weather-resistant for years to come.


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